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Blood Clots, dvt and superficial phlebitis

Parts of this were taken with permission from Essential Oils Overview and Reference Guide, published by: The Family Tree, 2008


see also Varicose veins

Blood clots are the body’s natural protection to stop bleeding from a cut or other injury.  On the other hand there are situations when blood clots form within blood vessels that Blood Clotrange in severity from mild to dangerous.  As the veins are disturbed by the clot the condition of thrombophlebitis or swelling of the veins can occur. Clots that form inside the small veins near the surface of the skin result in  superficial thrombophlebitis (or superficial phlebitis) and may cause local pain, redness, and swelling but are not dangerous.  When blood coagulates inside larger blood vessels or the heart and remains in place it is called thrombus.  The swelling of veins in this situation is called deep vein thrombosis (or DVT).

If such a blood clot dislodges and travels in the blood vessel it is called an embolism and can result in severe health concerns. The most dangerous of embolism types include blood clots within the arteries of the heart that cause a heart attack.  Blood clots in the heart or the main artery to the brain (carotid) that then travel to the brain give rise to a stroke.  Or a blood clot in a deep vein (often the legs) that then travels to the lungs culminates in what is called a pulmonary embolism.

Some of those most at risk for these types of disorders are those that are obese, pregnant, immobile, smokers and users of oral contraceptives. Certain diseases, types of cancer and surgeries increase the risk and there is some genetic disposition and also increased risk for those over 60.

As noted above blood clots range from helpful to very severe health situations.  If you believe you are potentially dealing with a severe type immediately seek competent professional assistance.  There are a number of anecdotal experiences of blood clots being reduced with essential oils and research (see Science & Research tab) that report that with increased Omega 3 fatty acids such as those in (...)’s essential oils based supplements (Basic Vitality Supplements (LLV)) there is improved cardiovascular health.

Oils, blends & products recommended:

Please note: The information provided below is a compilation of suggestions made by those that have used essential oils and has NOT been scientifically verified with clinical tests nor reviewed by medical experts. It is anecdotal information and should be treated as such. For serious medical concerns please seek professional medical attention.

Oils & Blends: Massage Blend, CloveC, CypressC, Soothing Blend, , HelichrysumC, ThymeC

Essential oils based products: Basic Vitality Supplements (LLV)

Also consider: Grounding BlendC, FennelC, GeraniumC, GrapefruitC, LemonC, LemongrassC, Peppermint

Note: to understand the E and C superscript go to Home and scroll to New Helps.

Suggested protocols:

Consistent use of the Basic Vitality Supplements (LLV) improves the balance of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids that is shown in research to improve cardiovascular health. Proper hydration is important, drink lots of water.

Deep vein thrombosis

Blood clots in major blood vessels can be life threatening and should be treated with professional medical attention. This can be coupled with helpful essential oils as described under superficial phlebitis below.

Superficial phlebitis (and DVT after clots are addressed)

If painful: Lightly apply (do not massage or rub oils directly) by patting or spraying soothing oils along affected area. Some oils suggested are Massage Blend, Soothing Blend rub and Peppermint.

Healing: Apply 2 - 3 drops each of Cypress and Helichrysum to the bottoms of the feet 2 or 3 times per day. Some have coupled this with the same oils also taken internally in a capsule daily. If the area is not painful the Cypress and Helichrysum can be applied directly to the area and followed with a hot compress to drive in the oils.

Note: Some find Helichrysum initially gives a tingling or painful feeling as it heals but this is temporary and will go away.

Experiences and Testimonials of others

Please note: The information provided below is a compilation of the experiences of others that have used essential oils and has NOT been scientifically verified with clinical tests nor reviewed by medical experts. It is anecdotal information and should be treated as such. For serious medical concerns please seek professional medical attention.

Bianca - Does anyone have experience with someone using Helichrysum and Cypress for varicose veins, specifically Thrombophlebitis/Thrombosis?  It was described to her as the bad veins were tangled with the healthy veins. She is using a roller ball applicator for both oils diluted with fractionated coconut oil. Lightly applied and gently rubbed upward toward the heart. The first night it felt like a "warm blanket" without pain. (First time not taking an analgesic before bed.) Since the first night, there has been pain every night when she goes to bed after applying oils. Much more acute the past couple of weeks since she began doing this.

I wonder if it is the healing process. I am going to suggest adding Lavender and or Frankincense..If any one has any other experiences or suggestions i would be grateful.

Mica - If I understand her situation the varicose veins are a result of prior thrombosis? The protocol is different depending on when the thrombosis occurred.  Recent thrombosis requires a doctor visit to determine whether the clot is deep or superficial and if anticoagulants (blood thinners) will be prescribed.  Cypress/Helichrysum can be applied to the bottoms of the feet, don't massage (even lightly) the leg. Apply peppermint to the palm of the hand and lay it over the area (no massaging), it will bring temporary cooling relief. Keep the leg elevated as much as possible and drink lots of water.  Dehydration makes for "sticky" blood that easily clots.  Anticoagulants "blood thinners" aren't always prescribed if a clot is superficial, but deep vein clots usually result in a hospital stay.  Always consult a doctor if you think you have a blood clot, deep vein clots can result in death.

Damage from a thrombosis that occurred long ago (long enough for the body to have absorbed the clot) isn't as tricky.  Yes there is pain when areas that aren't circulating blood like they should are massaged with oils that help bring the circulation back.  Since her massage has been painful, Cypress and Helichrysum can be applied to the bottoms of the feet, and oils with more cooling affects can be applied and massaged from the lower legs up towards the heart.  Personal favorites are Massage Blend and/or Peppermint and Soothing Blend Rub.  Helping the body circulate the blood the way it should will help prevent further damage - those veins usually get worse over time and without treatment.

Having had both deep vein thrombosis (many years ago) and a superficial clot, I can tell you that I felt little pain with the deep clot, and was actually surprised when it was diagnosed.  It was several days later that the pain set in, and stayed until my body absorbed the clot weeks later.  The superficial clot caused hot sharp pain and a raised vein that ran the length of my leg, and it occurred quickly.

In my case, poor circulation and spider veins didn't show up until years later.  Blood doesn't circulate like it should in these areas and the spider veins flair up, especially with hormone changes (increased blood flow). The protocol I recommended is what I personally use, along with a better diet, exercise, and hydration.


Lori - My friend has thrombosis, she says its serious.  What oil do you recommend? How many, internally? Topically?

Amelia - The main oil I know that helps w/blood clots is clove and depending on where it is located (it's usually in leg) she could either take internally or massage the clove oil over the spot or do both. One book suggests clove, fennel and thyme for blood clots...hope this helps!


Roz - Wednesday night I had this happen on my ankle I put it down to standing almost all day put oils on and went to bed it was gone in the morning. Yesterday I had a relaxing day didn't do much had a shower and when if got out my knee was in pain just burning like crazy and my vein was popping out. Doctor said its thrombosis and not to worry because it is not in a main artery. The doctorc said take aspirin for pain and inflammation. OK I know lavender work on inflammation and Frankincense will help what else?

Linda – Seeing the doctor is important with thrombosis. In this case after you have found out from the doctor it is nothing to worry about, Massage Blend is good for veins.

Stella - Helichrysum and Geranium, two of my favorites, are great for inflammation.

Kermie - Try Lemongrass and clove they are both good for blood colt and veins.

Ame – Try cypress.


Cheryl - My friend had bunion surgery almost a month ago and still has swelling in her foot. She was skeptical about EO's but was desperate and let me put a few drops of grapefruit and lemongrass on her toe, foot and behind her knee.  We applied them at 4pm for a "test drive" to see how she reacted.  Nothing really happened so I came back at 9pm to apply them for bedtime. I added a few drops of helichrysum because she mentioned her doctor said she might have the start of phlebitis.  She said at 10:30pm, 1 am and again at 4am she had a burning sensation internally all the way from her toe up to her knee.  She was not happy. Does anyone know if this is a common reaction or if I should have done something else?

Brooke - I have personally experienced something similar, and I recently met someone who had a similar story.  Helichrysum is a very unique oil.  I personally had pulled all the tendons or ligaments or something on the top of my foot when I fell down some stairs a couple of months ago. I couldn't even put on a shoe! I used several oils (lemongrass, marjoram, white fir, and a couple of others), and they worked great!  Within three days I was fine. Well, last week I got up wrong, and the top part of my foot pulled again. This time, I put Helichrysum on the top of my foot right before I went to bed.  It started hurting so bad.  I put Soothing Blend (which has Helichrysum.) and a few others on thinking it was just crazy that it would start to hurt!! (Because it hadn't before)  It took about an hour, but the pain finally subsided, and I went to sleep.   The next morning I woke up, and my foot did not hurt at all.  It was perfectly fine, and I had no pain from the re-injury to the top of my foot.

The same thing happened to my friend Betsy. She had hurt her foot doing fitness stuff, went to her first (...) meeting and they applied Helichrysum.  It hurt so bad all the way home - she thought they were crazy - until the next morning when the pain was GONE!!  She now loves essential oils.

My understanding is the Helichrysum is able to go in and basically "re-knit" tissues together. Sometimes there is pain associated with that, sometimes there isn't.  Don't give up because, maybe that is what the oils were doing - their job!  It takes time to figure out what works best for everyone, and if they will be patient, the oils can and will work!


Phil - My nephew had a blood clot in his leg.  He's on cumadin, but my sister is very worried with his active life style that he could easily bring on internal bleeding or other injuries.  He was cautioned about that by the doctor, and he won’t leave skate boarding, biking, rock climbing, etc alone.  His thought is that he would rather die doing stuff he loves, than live -not doing stuff he loves. It seems like someone had mentioned helicrhysum? Anyone with experiences with blood clots?

Kathy - I have actually worked with a couple of acquaintances that had blood clots (thrombosis) in their legs.  One was quite successful, the other was skeptical to start, and I fear he was not consistent.  I’m not sure how his clot came out.

The first was on what I thought was a overly large dose of cumadin, and had been on it for over a year. (scary). You are right, Helichrysum is most recommended for help in dissolving hematomas.  It requires consistency and patience.

I would apply drops to cover the area topically.  Rub the oil in lightly, no deep massage.  Then cover the area with a warm/hot compress for 10 min.  Do this at least twice per day.  Every week or so, use Basil for 2 days then return to Helichrysum.  Also make 00 capsules and put 3 drops Helichrysum, 3 drops Basil and take internally morning and night. Continue for several days even after a reduction in the swelling, bulge or irritation. I would continue under your doctor’s care.  Thrombosis can be very dangerous, and should be monitored.


Brooke - Any ideas for Blood Clots?  My dear friend is STILL in the hospital!  Been three weeks now and still can't get things stabilized.  Now they fear for blood clots - which seems so weird because she's been on so much heparin and other blood thinners?  I don't know if anything can help - but I guess it's worth a try to ask! Love and Thanks!

Pat - If she already had blood clots then there are oils that could be applied topically and also internally. The difficult part would be to administer them to her while in the hospital. Not even so much that the medical professionals taking care of her might object, but that if they knew she was using the oils (hard to hide the aroma), and something happened to her they could blame it on the oils.  Also you want to dissolve the blood clot not break it up, so caution is vital.

Brooke - I agree.  They aren't using the oils in the hospital because of that very thing. Although, I wish they were at least using the On-Guard to help build her immune system.  I was more wondering about when she comes home....(hopefully in 2 more weeks).

Jan - My goodness - what a challenging time for your friend and her family! Your thought about Protective Blend seems really good. So if nothing else, she could probably be taking Protective Blend Throat Drops. I'd suggest combining those with intention and visualization that in addition to the Protective Blend oils, each drop is carrying the energetic essence of the other oils and thereby helping all parts of her system.

Tamalu - Remember (...) is working with the medical community.  There is no "us" and 'Them".  My experience has been that if the patient requests me to come into the hospital to visit and assist as I can, and I go in with the confidence of a guest coming to comfort a friend, I am welcomed by all.  As a result, I have been welcomed in several hospitals, and the doctors and staff have been very open to me doing "whatever" I do. They see the results.  But I approach the matter from the perspective of being a friend, and do not make claims outside of relaxation and comfort.  When I have been asked by the doctors for more information, I understand that what they want is documentation, which we have and they deserve.  That is how they think, and how they keep themselves from lawsuits.  

If your friend is in pain, and worried about a blood clot, offer to gently apply some Helichrysum, Cypress and Soothing Blend (or your choice-- you know what to use).  Explain that your touch by itself can offer comfort from the pain.

And finally, I think often of the story of Esther.  She broke the law and went unbidden before the king.  But she prepared herself first and did not go alone.  She took the spirit of truth and love with her, left no room for doubt or worst-case scenarios, and saved a nation.  What are you doing to prepare?

Protocols folks recommend for children



Diet and Nutritional complements to essential oils


What Science & Research are saying

taken from the University of Maryland Medical Center web site:

Omega-3 fatty acids


Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids: They are necessary for human health but the body can' t make them -- you have to get them through food. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fish, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, and nut oils. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function as well as normal growth and development. They have also become popular because they may reduce the risk of heart disease. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish (particularly fatty fish such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna, and salmon) at least 2 times a week.

Research shows that omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and may help lower risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be important for cognitive (brain memory and performance) and behavioral function. In fact, infants who do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids from their mothers during pregnancy are at risk for developing vision and nerve problems. Symptoms of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency include fatigue, poor memory, dry skin, heart problems, mood swings or depression, and poor circulation.

It is important to have a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 (another essential fatty acid) in the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce inflammation, and most omega-6 fatty acids tend to promote inflammation. The typical American diet tends to contain 14 - 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids.

The Mediterranean diet, on the other hand, has a healthier balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Many studies have shown that people who follow this diet are less likely to develop heart disease. The Mediterranean diet does not include much meat (which is high in omega-6 fatty acids) and emphasizes foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, including whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, olive oil, garlic, as well as moderate wine consumption.


Clinical evidence is strongest for heart disease and problems that contribute to heart disease, but omega-3 fatty acids may also be used for:

High cholesterol

People who follow a Mediterranean-style diet tend to have higher HDL or “good” cholesterol levels, which help promote heart health. Inuit Eskimos, who get high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids from eating fatty fish, also tend to have increased HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides (fats in the blood). Several studies have shown that fish oil supplements reduce triglyceride levels. Finally, walnuts (which are rich in alpha linolenic acid or LNA, a type of omega-3 fatty acid) have been reported to lower total cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high cholesterol levels.

High blood pressure

Several clinical studies suggest that diets or fish oil supplements rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure in people with hypertension. An analysis of 17 clinical studies using fish oil supplements found that taking 3 or more grams of fish oil daily may reduce blood pressure in people with untreated hypertension.

Heart disease

One of the best ways to help prevent heart disease is to eat a diet low in saturated fat and to eat foods that are rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including omega-3 fatty acids). Clinical evidence suggests that EPA and DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil) help reduce risk factors for heart disease, including high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Fish oil has been shown to lower levels of triglycerides (fats in the blood), and to lower risk of death, heart attack, stroke, and abnormal heart rhythms in people who have already had a heart attack. Fish oil also appears to help prevent and treat atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) by slowing the development of plaque and blood clots, which can clog arteries.

Large population studies suggest that getting omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, primarily from fish, helps protect against stroke caused by plaque buildup and blood clots in the arteries that lead to the brain. Eating at least 2 servings of fish per week can reduce the risk of stroke by as much as 50%. However, high doses of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of bleeding. People who eat more than 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day (equivalent to 3 servings of fish per day) may have higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke, a potentially fatal type of stroke in which an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures.


People with diabetes often have high triglyceride and low HDL levels. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can help lower triglycerides and apoproteins (markers of diabetes), and raise HDL, so eating foods or taking fish oil supplements may help people with diabetes. Another type of omega-3 fatty acid, ALA (from flaxseed, for example) may not have the same benefit as fish oil. Some people with diabetes can' t efficiently convert LNA to a form of omega-3 fatty acids that the body can use. Also, some people with type 2 diabetes may have slight increases in fasting blood sugar when taking fish oil, so talk to your doctor to see if fish oil is right for you.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Most clinical studies examining omega-3 fatty acid supplements for arthritis have focused on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints. A number of small studies have found that fish oil helps reduce symptoms of RA, including joint pain and morning stiffness. One study suggests that people with RA who take fish oil may be able to lower their dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, unlike prescription medications, fish oil does not appear to slow progression of RA, only to treat the symptoms. Joint damage still occurs.

Laboratory studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids (and low in the inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids) may help people with osteoarthritis, although more study is needed. New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), another potential source of omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to reduce joint stiffness and pain, increase grip strength, and improve walking pace in a small group of people with osteoarthritis. For some people, symptoms got worse before they improved.

An analysis of 17 randomized, controlled clinical trials looked at the pain relieving effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in people with RA or joint pain caused by inflammatory bowel disease (IBS) and painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). The results suggest that omega-3 fatty acids, along with conventional therapies such as NSAIDs, may help relieve joint pain associated with these conditions.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Several small studies suggest that EPA and fish oil may help reduce symptoms of lupus, an autoimmune condition characterized by fatigue and joint pain. However, two small studies found fish oil had no effect on lupus nephritis (kidney disease caused by lupus, a frequent complication of the disease).


Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may help increase levels of calcium in the body and improve bone strength, although not all results were positive. Some studies also suggest that people who don' t get enough of some essential fatty acids (particularly EPA and gamma-linolenic acid [GLA], an omega-6 fatty acid) are more likely to have bone loss than those with normal levels of these fatty acids. In a study of women over 65 with osteoporosis, those who took EPA and GLA supplements had less bone loss over 3 years than those who took placebo. Many of these women also experienced an increase in bone density.


Studies have found mixed results as to whether taking omega-3 fatty acids can help depression symptoms. Several studies have found that people who took omega-3 fatty acids in addition to prescription antidepressants had a greater improvement in symptoms than those who took antidepressants alone. However, other studies have found no benefit.

Studies are also mixed on whether omega-3 fatty acids alone have any effect on depression. Depression is a serious illness and you should not try to treat it on your own. See a doctor for help.

Bipolar disorder

In a clinical study of 30 people with bipolar disorder, those who took fish oil in addition to standard prescription treatments for bipolar disorder for 4 months experienced fewer mood swings and relapse than those who received placebo. But another 4-month long clinical study treating people with bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder did not find that EPA helped reduce symptoms.


Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia may have an improvement in symptoms when given omega-3 fatty acids. However, a recent well-designed study concluded that EPA supplements are no better than placebo in improving symptoms of this condition.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have low levels of certain essential fatty acids (including EPA and DHA). In a clinical study of nearly 100 boys, those with lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids had more learning and behavioral problems (such as temper tantrums and sleep disturbances) than boys with normal omega-3 fatty acid levels.

However, studies examining whether omega-3 fatty acids help improve symptoms of ADHD have found mixed results. A few studies have found that omega-3 fatty acids helped improve behavioral symptoms, but most were not well designed. One study that looked at DHA in addition to stimulant therapy (standard therapy for ADHD) found no effect. More research is needed, but eating foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids is a reasonable approach for someone with ADHD.

Skin disorders

In one clinical study, 13 people with sun sensitivity known as photo dermatitis showed less sensitivity to UV rays after taking fish oil supplements. However, topical sunscreens are much better at protecting the skin from damaging effects of the sun than omega-3 fatty acids. In another study of 40 people with psoriasis, those who took EPA with their prescription medications did better than those treated with the medications alone. However, a larger study of people with psoriasis found no benefit from fish oil.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Results are mixed as to whether omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce symptoms of Crohn' s disease and ulcerative colitis, the two types of IBD. Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may help when added to medication, such as sulfasalazine (a standard medication for IBD). Others find no effect. More studies are needed. Fish oil supplements can cause side effects that are similar to symptoms of IBD (such as flatulence, belching, bloating, and diarrhea).


Studies examining omega-3 fatty acids for asthma are mixed. In one small, well-designed clinical study of 29 children with asthma, those who took fish oil supplements rich in EPA and DHA for 10 months reduced their symptoms compared to children who took placebo. However, most studies have shown no effect.

Macular Degeneration

A questionnaire given to more than 3,000 people over the age of 49 found that those who ate more fish were less likely to have macular degeneration (a serious age-related eye condition that can progress to blindness) than those who ate less fish. Similarly, a clinical study comparing 350 people with macular degeneration to 500 without the eye disease found that those with a healthy dietary balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and more fish in their diets were less likely to have macular degeneration.

Menstrual pain

In one study of 42 women, they had less menstrual pain when they took fish oil supplements than when they took placebo.


Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids seems to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. For example, Eskimos, who tend to have a high-fat diet but eat significant amounts of fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, have a low rate of colorectal cancer. Animal studies and laboratory studies have found that omega-3 fatty acids prevent worsening of colon cancer. Preliminary studies suggest that taking fish oil daily may help slow the progression of colon cancer in people with early stages of the disease. If you have colorectal cancer, ask your doctor before taking any supplements.

Breast cancer

Although not all experts agree, women who eat foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids over many years may be less likely to develop breast cancer. More research is needed to understand the effect that omega-3 fatty acids may have on the prevention of breast cancer.

Prostate cancer

Population based studies of groups of men suggest that a low-fat diet including omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil help prevent the development of prostate cancer.


Protective role of arzanol against lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

Rosa A, Pollastro F, Atzeri A, Appendino G, Melis MP, Deiana M, Incani A, Loru D, Dessì MA.  Dip. Biologia Sperimentale, Sez. Patologia Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, SS 554, Km 4.5, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy. anrosa@unica.it


This study examines the protective effect of arzanol, a pyrone-phloroglucinol etherodimer from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, against the oxidative modification of lipid components induced by Cu(2+) ions in human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in cell membranes. LDL pre-treatment with arzanol significantly preserved lipoproteins from oxidative damage at 2h of oxidation, and showed a remarkable protective effect on the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol levels, inhibiting the increase of oxidative products (conjugated dienes fatty acids hydroperoxides, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol). Arzanol, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, exerted a noteworthy protection on TBH-induced oxidative damage in a line of fibroblasts derived from monkey kidney (Vero cells) and in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), decreasing, in both cell lines, the formation of oxidative products (hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol) from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol. The cellular uptake and transepithelial transport of the compound were also investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Arzanol appeared to accumulate in Caco-2 epithelial cells. This phenol was able to pass through the intestinal Caco-2 monolayers, the apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) in the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical direction at 2h were 1.93±0.36×10(-5) and 2.20±0.004×10(-5)cm/s, respectively, suggesting a passive diffusion pathway. The results of the work qualify arzanol as a potent natural antioxidant with a protective effect against lipid oxidation in biological systems.


Purification and characterization of antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr. & PERRY.

Lee JI, Lee HS, Jun WJ, Yu KW, Shin DH, Hong BS, Cho HY, Yang HC. Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul.


Two antithrombotic polysaccharides with relatively high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) were isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERR. & PERRY (clove) by anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction column chromatography and size exclusion chromatography (LMW: EC-2B-IIIa-2, M.W. ca. 34000; HMW: EC-2C-Ia-2, M.W. ca. 103000). The LMW polysaccharide was mainly composed of Rha, Gal, GalA and Ara (molar %: 24.1, 18.9, 18.0 and 17.9, respectively) with 10.8% of sulfate and 18.2% of protein. The HMW fraction consisted of Ara, Gal, Glc and Rha (molar %: 26.0, 23.7, 17.5 and 12.4, respectively) with 15.4% of sulfate and 8.0% of protein. Both polysaccharides had the backbone of type I rhamnogalacturonan and the side chain of arabinan. Also, most of the sulfates were attached at the position 6 of 3-linked galactosyl residues. Compared to the antithrombotic activity of the HMW fraction (plasma clotting time of 145 s in APTT assay), the LMW fraction displayed a slightly low activity (90 s). However, animal studies indicated that crude LMW polysaccharide did not show acute toxicity, while the acute LD50 of the HMW fraction was approximately 2-fold lower than that of heparin.


Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.

Olajide OA, Ajayi FF, Ekhelar AI, Awe SO, Makinde JM, Alada AR. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.


The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.


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NOTE: The advice shared in this site has not been evaluated by the FDA. The products and methods recommended are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease, nor is it intended to replace proper medical help. As members offer or look for answers, kindly understand that essential oils work to help to bring the body into balance - thus helping the body's natural defenses to restore homeostasis. Essential oils are not used to "treat" medical problems.