Oils, blends & products
Please note: The information provided below
is a compilation of suggestions made by
those that have used essential oils and has
NOT been scientifically verified with
clinical tests nor reviewed by medical
experts. It is anecdotal information and
should be treated as such. For serious
medical concerns please seek professional
Oils & Blends:
Soothing Blend, , HelichrysumC, ThymeC
Essential oils based
products: Basic Vitality Supplements (LLV)
Grounding BlendC, FennelC, GeraniumC,
understand the E and C superscript go to Home and
scroll to New Helps.
Consistent use of the Basic Vitality Supplements (LLV)
improves the balance of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids that
is shown in research to improve cardiovascular health.
Proper hydration is important, drink lots of water.
Deep vein thrombosis
Blood clots in major blood vessels can be life
threatening and should be treated with professional medical
attention. This can be coupled with helpful essential oils
as described under superficial phlebitis below.
Superficial phlebitis (and DVT after
clots are addressed)
If painful: Lightly apply (do not massage or rub oils
directly) by patting or spraying soothing oils along
affected area. Some oils suggested are Massage Blend, Soothing Blend
rub and Peppermint.
Healing: Apply 2 - 3 drops each of Cypress and
Helichrysum to the bottoms of the feet 2 or 3 times per day.
Some have coupled this with the same oils also taken
internally in a capsule daily. If the area is not painful
the Cypress and Helichrysum can be applied directly to the
area and followed with a hot compress to drive in the oils.
Note: Some find Helichrysum initially gives a tingling or
painful feeling as it heals but this is temporary and will
Experiences and Testimonials of others
Please note: The information provided below is
a compilation of the experiences of others that have
used essential oils and has NOT been scientifically
verified with clinical tests nor reviewed by medical
experts. It is anecdotal information and should be
treated as such. For serious medical concerns please
seek professional medical attention.
Bianca - Does
anyone have experience with someone using Helichrysum and
Cypress for varicose veins, specifically Thrombophlebitis/Thrombosis?
It was described to her as the bad veins were tangled with
the healthy veins. She is using a roller ball applicator for
both oils diluted with fractionated coconut oil. Lightly
applied and gently rubbed upward toward the heart. The first
night it felt like a "warm blanket" without pain. (First
time not taking an analgesic before bed.) Since the first
night, there has been pain every night when she goes to bed
after applying oils. Much more acute the past couple of
weeks since she began doing this.
I wonder if it is the healing
process. I am going to suggest adding Lavender and or
Frankincense..If any one has any other experiences or
suggestions i would be grateful.
Mica - If I understand her situation the
varicose veins are a result of prior thrombosis? The
protocol is different depending on when the thrombosis
occurred. Recent thrombosis requires a doctor visit to
determine whether the clot is deep or superficial and if
anticoagulants (blood thinners) will be prescribed.
Cypress/Helichrysum can be applied to the bottoms of the
feet, don't massage (even lightly) the leg. Apply peppermint
to the palm of the hand and lay it over the area (no
massaging), it will bring temporary cooling relief. Keep the
leg elevated as much as possible and drink lots of water.
Dehydration makes for "sticky" blood that easily
clots. Anticoagulants "blood thinners" aren't always
prescribed if a clot is superficial, but deep vein clots
usually result in a hospital stay. Always consult a
doctor if you think you have a blood clot, deep vein
clots can result in death.
Damage from a thrombosis that occurred long ago (long
enough for the body to have absorbed the clot) isn't as
tricky. Yes there is pain when areas that aren't
circulating blood like they should are massaged with oils
that help bring the circulation back. Since her
massage has been painful, Cypress and Helichrysum can be
applied to the bottoms of the feet, and oils with more
cooling affects can be applied and massaged from the lower
legs up towards the heart. Personal favorites are
Massage Blend and/or Peppermint and Soothing Blend Rub.
Helping the body circulate the blood the way it should will
help prevent further damage - those veins usually get worse
over time and without treatment.
Having had both deep vein thrombosis (many years ago) and
a superficial clot, I can tell you that I felt little pain
with the deep clot, and was actually surprised when it was
diagnosed. It was several days later that the pain set
in, and stayed until my body absorbed the clot weeks later.
The superficial clot caused hot sharp pain and a raised vein
that ran the length of my leg, and it occurred quickly.
In my case, poor circulation and spider veins didn't show
up until years later. Blood doesn't circulate like it
should in these areas and the spider veins flair up,
especially with hormone changes (increased blood flow). The
protocol I recommended is what I personally use, along with
a better diet, exercise, and hydration.
Lori - My friend
has thrombosis, she says its serious. What oil do you
recommend? How many, internally? Topically?
Amelia - The main oil I know that helps
w/blood clots is clove and depending on where it is located
(it's usually in leg) she could either take internally or
massage the clove oil over the spot or do both. One book
suggests clove, fennel and thyme for blood clots...hope this
Roz - Wednesday
night I had this happen on my ankle I put it down to
standing almost all day put oils on and went to bed it was
gone in the morning. Yesterday I had a relaxing
day didn't do much had a shower and when if got out my knee
was in pain just burning like crazy and my vein was popping
out. Doctor said its thrombosis and not to worry because it
is not in a main artery. The doctorc said take aspirin for
pain and inflammation. OK I know lavender work on
inflammation and Frankincense will help what else?
Linda – Seeing the doctor is important
with thrombosis. In this case after you have found out from
the doctor it is nothing to worry about, Massage Blend is good
Stella - Helichrysum and Geranium, two
of my favorites, are great for inflammation.
Kermie - Try Lemongrass and clove they
are both good for blood colt and veins.
Ame – Try cypress.
Cheryl - My friend
had bunion surgery almost a month ago and still has swelling
in her foot. She was skeptical about EO's but was desperate
and let me put a few drops of grapefruit and lemongrass on
her toe, foot and behind her knee. We applied them at 4pm
for a "test drive" to see how she reacted. Nothing really
happened so I came back at 9pm to apply them for bedtime. I
added a few drops of helichrysum because she mentioned her
doctor said she might have the start of phlebitis. She said
at 10:30pm, 1 am and again at 4am she had a burning
sensation internally all the way from her toe up to her
knee. She was not happy. Does anyone know if this is a
common reaction or if I should have done something else?
Brooke - I have personally experienced
something similar, and I recently met someone who had a
similar story. Helichrysum is a very unique oil. I
personally had pulled all the tendons or ligaments or
something on the top of my foot when I fell down some stairs
a couple of months ago. I couldn't even put on a shoe! I
used several oils (lemongrass, marjoram, white fir, and a
couple of others), and they worked great! Within three days
I was fine. Well, last week I got up wrong, and the top part
of my foot pulled again. This time, I put Helichrysum on the
top of my foot right before I went to bed. It started
hurting so bad. I put Soothing Blend (which has Helichrysum.)
and a few others on thinking it was just crazy that it would
start to hurt!! (Because it hadn't before) It took about an
hour, but the pain finally subsided, and I went to sleep.
The next morning I woke up, and my foot did not hurt at all.
It was perfectly fine, and I had no pain from the re-injury
to the top of my foot.
The same thing happened to my friend Betsy. She had hurt
her foot doing fitness stuff, went to her first (...)
meeting and they applied Helichrysum. It hurt so bad all
the way home - she thought they were crazy - until the next
morning when the pain was GONE!! She now loves essential
My understanding is the Helichrysum is able to go in and
basically "re-knit" tissues together. Sometimes there is
pain associated with that, sometimes there isn't. Don't
give up because, maybe that is what the oils were doing -
their job! It takes time to figure out what works best for
everyone, and if they will be patient, the oils can and will
Phil - My nephew
had a blood clot in his leg. He's on cumadin, but my
sister is very worried with his active life style that he
could easily bring on internal bleeding or other injuries.
He was cautioned about that by the doctor, and he won’t
leave skate boarding, biking, rock climbing, etc alone.
His thought is that he would rather die doing stuff he
loves, than live -not doing stuff he loves. It seems like
someone had mentioned helicrhysum? Anyone with experiences
with blood clots?
Kathy - I have actually worked with a
couple of acquaintances that had blood clots (thrombosis) in
their legs. One was quite successful, the other was
skeptical to start, and I fear he was not consistent.
I’m not sure how his clot came out.
The first was on what I thought was a overly large dose
of cumadin, and had been on it for over a year. (scary). You
are right, Helichrysum is most recommended for help in
dissolving hematomas. It requires consistency and
I would apply drops to cover the area topically.
Rub the oil in lightly, no deep massage. Then cover
the area with a warm/hot compress for 10 min. Do this
at least twice per day. Every week or so, use Basil
for 2 days then return to Helichrysum. Also make 00
capsules and put 3 drops Helichrysum, 3 drops Basil and take
internally morning and night. Continue for several days even
after a reduction in the swelling, bulge or irritation. I
would continue under your doctor’s care. Thrombosis
can be very dangerous, and should be monitored.
Brooke - Any ideas for Blood Clots? My
dear friend is STILL in the hospital! Been three weeks now
and still can't get things stabilized. Now they fear for
blood clots - which seems so weird because she's been on
much heparin and other blood thinners? I don't know if
anything can help - but I guess it's worth a try to ask!
Love and Thanks!
Pat - If she already had blood clots
then there are oils that could be applied topically and also
internally. The difficult part would be to administer them
to her while in the hospital. Not even so much that the
medical professionals taking care of her might object, but
that if they knew she was using the oils (hard to hide the
aroma), and something happened to her they could blame it on
the oils. Also you want to dissolve the blood clot not
break it up, so caution is vital.
Brooke - I agree. They aren't using the
oils in the hospital because of that very thing. Although, I
wish they were at least using the On-Guard to help build her
immune system. I was more wondering about when she comes
home....(hopefully in 2 more weeks).
Jan - My goodness - what a challenging
time for your friend and her family! Your thought about
Protective Blend seems really good. So if nothing else, she could
probably be taking Protective Blend Throat Drops. I'd suggest
combining those with intention and visualization that in
addition to the Protective Blend oils, each drop is carrying the
energetic essence of the other oils and thereby helping all
parts of her system.
Tamalu - Remember (...) is working with the
medical community. There is no "us" and 'Them". My
experience has been that if the patient requests me to come
into the hospital to visit and assist as I can, and I go in
with the confidence of a guest coming to comfort a friend, I
am welcomed by all. As a result, I have been welcomed in
several hospitals, and the doctors and staff have been very
open to me doing "whatever" I do. They see the
results. But I approach the matter from the perspective of
being a friend, and do not make claims outside of relaxation
and comfort. When I have been asked by the doctors for more
information, I understand that what they want is
documentation, which we have and they deserve. That is how
they think, and how they keep themselves from lawsuits.
If your friend is in pain, and worried about a blood
clot, offer to gently apply some Helichrysum, Cypress and
Soothing Blend (or your choice-- you know what to use). Explain
that your touch by itself can offer comfort from the pain.
And finally, I think often of the story of Esther. She
broke the law and went unbidden before the king. But she
prepared herself first and did not go alone. She took the
spirit of truth and love with her, left no room for doubt or
worst-case scenarios, and saved a nation. What are you
doing to prepare?
What Science & Research are saying
taken from the University of Maryland Medical Center web
Omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids:
They are necessary for human health but the body can' t make
them -- you have to get them through food. Omega-3 fatty
acids can be found in fish, such as salmon, tuna, and
halibut, other seafood including algae and krill, some
plants, and nut oils. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs), omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in
brain function as well as normal growth and development.
They have also become popular because they may reduce the
risk of heart disease. The American Heart Association
recommends eating fish (particularly fatty fish such as
mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna, and
salmon) at least 2 times a week.
Research shows that omega-3 fatty acids reduce
inflammation and may help lower risk of chronic diseases
such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. Omega-3 fatty
acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be
important for cognitive (brain memory and performance) and
behavioral function. In fact, infants who do not get enough
omega-3 fatty acids from their mothers during pregnancy are
at risk for developing vision and nerve problems. Symptoms
of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency include fatigue, poor
memory, dry skin, heart problems, mood swings or depression,
and poor circulation.
It is important to have a balance of omega-3 and omega-6
(another essential fatty acid) in the diet. Omega-3 fatty
acids help reduce inflammation, and most omega-6 fatty acids
tend to promote inflammation. The typical American diet
tends to contain 14 - 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than
omega-3 fatty acids.
The Mediterranean diet, on the other hand, has a
healthier balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Many studies have shown that people who follow this diet are
less likely to develop heart disease. The Mediterranean diet
does not include much meat (which is high in omega-6 fatty
acids) and emphasizes foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids,
including whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, fish,
olive oil, garlic, as well as moderate wine consumption.
Clinical evidence is strongest for heart disease and
problems that contribute to heart disease, but omega-3 fatty
acids may also be used for:
People who follow a Mediterranean-style diet tend to have
higher HDL or “good” cholesterol levels, which help promote
heart health. Inuit Eskimos, who get high amounts of omega-3
fatty acids from eating fatty fish, also tend to have
increased HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides (fats
in the blood). Several studies have shown that fish oil
supplements reduce triglyceride levels. Finally, walnuts
(which are rich in alpha linolenic acid or LNA, a type of
omega-3 fatty acid) have been reported to lower total
cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high
High blood pressure
Several clinical studies suggest that diets or fish oil
supplements rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure
in people with hypertension. An analysis of 17 clinical
studies using fish oil supplements found that taking 3 or
more grams of fish oil daily may reduce blood pressure in
people with untreated hypertension.
One of the best ways to help prevent heart disease is to
eat a diet low in saturated fat and to eat foods that are
rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including
omega-3 fatty acids). Clinical evidence suggests that EPA
and DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the
two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil) help reduce risk
factors for heart disease, including high cholesterol and
high blood pressure. Fish oil has been shown to lower levels
of triglycerides (fats in the blood), and to lower risk of
death, heart attack, stroke, and abnormal heart rhythms in
people who have already had a heart attack. Fish oil also
appears to help prevent and treat atherosclerosis (hardening
of the arteries) by slowing the development of plaque and
blood clots, which can clog arteries.
Large population studies suggest that getting omega-3
fatty acids in the diet, primarily from fish, helps protect
against stroke caused by plaque buildup and blood clots in
the arteries that lead to the brain. Eating at least 2
servings of fish per week can reduce the risk of stroke by
as much as 50%. However, high doses of fish oil and omega-3
fatty acids may increase the risk of bleeding. People who
eat more than 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day
(equivalent to 3 servings of fish per day) may have higher
risk for hemorrhagic stroke, a potentially fatal type of
stroke in which an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures.
People with diabetes often have high triglyceride and low
HDL levels. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can help lower
triglycerides and apoproteins (markers of diabetes), and
raise HDL, so eating foods or taking fish oil supplements
may help people with diabetes. Another type of omega-3 fatty
acid, ALA (from flaxseed, for example) may not have the same
benefit as fish oil. Some people with diabetes can' t
efficiently convert LNA to a form of omega-3 fatty acids
that the body can use. Also, some people with type 2
diabetes may have slight increases in fasting blood sugar
when taking fish oil, so talk to your doctor to see if fish
oil is right for you.
Most clinical studies examining omega-3 fatty acid
supplements for arthritis have focused on rheumatoid
arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease that causes
inflammation in the joints. A number of small studies have
found that fish oil helps reduce symptoms of RA, including
joint pain and morning stiffness. One study suggests that
people with RA who take fish oil may be able to lower their
dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
However, unlike prescription medications, fish oil does not
appear to slow progression of RA, only to treat the
symptoms. Joint damage still occurs.
Laboratory studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3
fatty acids (and low in the inflammatory omega-6 fatty
acids) may help people with osteoarthritis, although more
study is needed. New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna
canaliculus), another potential source of omega-3 fatty
acids, has been reported to reduce joint stiffness and pain,
increase grip strength, and improve walking pace in a small
group of people with osteoarthritis. For some people,
symptoms got worse before they improved.
An analysis of 17 randomized, controlled clinical trials
looked at the pain relieving effects of omega-3 fatty acid
supplements in people with RA or joint pain caused by
inflammatory bowel disease (IBS) and painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea).
The results suggest that omega-3 fatty acids, along with
conventional therapies such as NSAIDs, may help relieve
joint pain associated with these conditions.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Several small studies suggest that EPA and fish oil may
help reduce symptoms of lupus, an autoimmune condition
characterized by fatigue and joint pain. However, two small
studies found fish oil had no effect on lupus nephritis
(kidney disease caused by lupus, a frequent complication of
Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may help
increase levels of calcium in the body and improve bone
strength, although not all results were positive. Some
studies also suggest that people who don' t get enough of
some essential fatty acids (particularly EPA and gamma-linolenic
acid [GLA], an omega-6 fatty acid) are more likely to have
bone loss than those with normal levels of these fatty
acids. In a study of women over 65 with osteoporosis, those
who took EPA and GLA supplements had less bone loss over 3
years than those who took placebo. Many of these women also
experienced an increase in bone density.
Studies have found mixed results as to whether taking
omega-3 fatty acids can help depression symptoms. Several
studies have found that people who took omega-3 fatty acids
in addition to prescription antidepressants had a greater
improvement in symptoms than those who took antidepressants
alone. However, other studies have found no benefit.
Studies are also mixed on whether omega-3 fatty acids
alone have any effect on depression. Depression is a serious
illness and you should not try to treat it on your own. See
a doctor for help.
In a clinical study of 30 people with bipolar disorder,
those who took fish oil in addition to standard prescription
treatments for bipolar disorder for 4 months experienced
fewer mood swings and relapse than those who received
placebo. But another 4-month long clinical study treating
people with bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar
disorder did not find that EPA helped reduce symptoms.
Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that people with
schizophrenia may have an improvement in symptoms when given
omega-3 fatty acids. However, a recent well-designed study
concluded that EPA supplements are no better than placebo in
improving symptoms of this condition.
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) may have low levels of certain essential fatty acids
(including EPA and DHA). In a clinical study of nearly 100
boys, those with lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids had
more learning and behavioral problems (such as temper
tantrums and sleep disturbances) than boys with normal
omega-3 fatty acid levels.
However, studies examining whether omega-3 fatty acids
help improve symptoms of ADHD have found mixed results. A
few studies have found that omega-3 fatty acids helped
improve behavioral symptoms, but most were not well
designed. One study that looked at DHA in addition to
stimulant therapy (standard therapy for ADHD) found no
effect. More research is needed, but eating foods that are
high in omega-3 fatty acids is a reasonable approach for
someone with ADHD.
In one clinical study, 13 people with sun sensitivity
known as photo dermatitis showed less sensitivity to UV rays
after taking fish oil supplements. However, topical
sunscreens are much better at protecting the skin from
damaging effects of the sun than omega-3 fatty acids. In
another study of 40 people with psoriasis, those who took
EPA with their prescription medications did better than
those treated with the medications alone. However, a larger
study of people with psoriasis found no benefit from fish
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Results are mixed as to whether omega-3 fatty acids can
help reduce symptoms of Crohn' s disease and ulcerative
colitis, the two types of IBD. Some studies suggest that
omega-3 fatty acids may help when added to medication, such
as sulfasalazine (a standard medication for IBD). Others
find no effect. More studies are needed. Fish oil
supplements can cause side effects that are similar to
symptoms of IBD (such as flatulence, belching, bloating, and
Studies examining omega-3 fatty acids for asthma are
mixed. In one small, well-designed clinical study of 29
children with asthma, those who took fish oil supplements
rich in EPA and DHA for 10 months reduced their symptoms
compared to children who took placebo. However, most studies
have shown no effect.
A questionnaire given to more than 3,000 people over the
age of 49 found that those who ate more fish were less
likely to have macular degeneration (a serious age-related
eye condition that can progress to blindness) than those who
ate less fish. Similarly, a clinical study comparing 350
people with macular degeneration to 500 without the eye
disease found that those with a healthy dietary balance of
omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and more fish in their diets
were less likely to have macular degeneration.
In one study of 42 women, they had less menstrual pain
when they took fish oil supplements than when they took
Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids seems to reduce
the risk of colorectal cancer. For example, Eskimos, who
tend to have a high-fat diet but eat significant amounts of
fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, have a low rate of
colorectal cancer. Animal studies and laboratory studies
have found that omega-3 fatty acids prevent worsening of
colon cancer. Preliminary studies suggest that taking fish
oil daily may help slow the progression of colon cancer in
people with early stages of the disease. If you have
colorectal cancer, ask your doctor before taking any
Although not all experts agree, women who eat foods rich
in omega-3 fatty acids over many years may be less likely to
develop breast cancer. More research is needed to understand
the effect that omega-3 fatty acids may have on the
prevention of breast cancer.
Population based studies of groups of men suggest that a
low-fat diet including omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish
oil help prevent the development of prostate cancer.
Protective role of arzanol against
lipid peroxidation in biological systems.
Rosa A, Pollastro F, Atzeri A, Appendino G, Melis MP,
Deiana M, Incani A, Loru D, Dessì MA. Dip. Biologia
Sperimentale, Sez. Patologia Sperimentale, Università degli
Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, SS 554, Km 4.5,
09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study examines the protective effect of arzanol, a
pyrone-phloroglucinol etherodimer from
Helichrysum italicum subsp.
microphyllum, against the oxidative modification of lipid
components induced by Cu(2+) ions in human low density
lipoprotein (LDL) and by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in
cell membranes. LDL pre-treatment with arzanol significantly
preserved lipoproteins from oxidative damage at 2h of
oxidation, and showed a remarkable protective effect on the
reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol
levels, inhibiting the increase of oxidative products
(conjugated dienes fatty acids hydroperoxides, 7β-hydroxycholesterol,
and 7-ketocholesterol). Arzanol, at non-cytotoxic
concentrations, exerted a noteworthy protection on
TBH-induced oxidative damage in a line of fibroblasts
derived from monkey kidney (Vero cells) and in human
intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), decreasing, in both
cell lines, the formation of oxidative products (hydroperoxides
and 7-ketocholesterol) from the degradation of unsaturated
fatty acids and cholesterol. The cellular uptake and
transepithelial transport of the compound were also
investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Arzanol appeared to
accumulate in Caco-2 epithelial cells. This phenol was able
to pass through the intestinal Caco-2 monolayers, the
apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) in the
apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical direction at
2h were 1.93±0.36×10(-5) and 2.20±0.004×10(-5)cm/s,
respectively, suggesting a passive diffusion pathway.
The results of the work qualify
arzanol as a potent natural antioxidant with a protective
effect against lipid oxidation in biological systems.
Purification and characterization
of antithrombotics from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MErr. &
Lee JI, Lee HS, Jun WJ, Yu KW, Shin DH, Hong BS, Cho HY,
Yang HC. Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University,
Two antithrombotic polysaccharides with relatively high
molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) were
isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.)
MERR. & PERRY (clove) by
anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction
column chromatography and size exclusion chromatography
(LMW: EC-2B-IIIa-2, M.W. ca. 34000; HMW: EC-2C-Ia-2, M.W.
ca. 103000). The LMW polysaccharide was mainly composed of
Rha, Gal, GalA and Ara (molar %: 24.1, 18.9, 18.0 and 17.9,
respectively) with 10.8% of sulfate and 18.2% of protein.
The HMW fraction consisted of Ara, Gal, Glc and Rha (molar
%: 26.0, 23.7, 17.5 and 12.4, respectively) with 15.4% of
sulfate and 8.0% of protein. Both polysaccharides had the
backbone of type I rhamnogalacturonan and the side chain of
arabinan. Also, most of the sulfates were attached at the
position 6 of 3-linked galactosyl residues. Compared to the
antithrombotic activity of the HMW fraction (plasma clotting
time of 145 s in APTT assay), the LMW fraction displayed a
slightly low activity (90 s).
However, animal studies indicated that crude LMW
polysaccharide did not show acute toxicity, while the acute
LD50 of the HMW fraction was approximately 2-fold lower than
that of heparin.
Biological effects of Myristica
fragrans (nutmeg) extract.
Olajide OA, Ajayi FF, Ekhelar AI, Awe SO, Makinde JM,
Alada AR. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
The chloroform extract of nutmeg
has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and
antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited
the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a
reduction in writhings induced
by acetic acid in mice and offered
protection against thrombosis induced by
ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.